Africa

African Continental Integration: Lessons from East Africa

By Lucy Luo

The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which came into force in January 2021, is the world's largest new free trade area since the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1994. It is expected to facilitate intra-African trade and improve the competitiveness of African industry and enterprises. While there is great momentum behind the agreement, its successful implementation still depends on thoughtful policy choices. In this blog post, we explore what lessons can be drawn from previous regional economic integration experiences.... Read more about African Continental Integration: Lessons from East Africa

Student Stories: Inspired by the Growth Diagnostics Framework

Photo of Jack GisbyJack Gisby recently graduated with an MPA (Economic Policy) from the London School of Economics. As part of the Growth Lab's 2022 Summer Internship Program, he contributed to the newly formed Pan-Africa research agenda. Our team is exploring the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) and the underlying constraints that have held African nations back from economic diversification and structural transformation.... Read more about Student Stories: Inspired by the Growth Diagnostics Framework

Student Stories: Challenges and Public Sector Growth in Namibia

María Ignacia Ossa is a second-year MPP student at the London School of Economics and Political Science. As part of the Growth Lab's 2022 Summer Internship Program, she contributed to the project in Namibia. This two-year policy engagement with the Government of Namibia focuses on supporting implementation efforts on a range of growth- and inclusion-related challenges.... Read more about Student Stories: Challenges and Public Sector Growth in Namibia

Student Stories: From DEV 309 to Analyzing WAEMU's Impact on Trade

Julia Conrad head shotJulia Conrad is a second-year MPA/ID student at Harvard Kennedy School. She was accepted into the Growth Lab's 2022 Summer Internship Program and contributed to the newly formed Pan-Africa research agenda. Our team is exploring the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) and the underlying constraints that have held African nations back from economic diversification and structural transformation.... Read more about Student Stories: From DEV 309 to Analyzing WAEMU's Impact on Trade

Student Stories: Exploring Investment Opportunities in Namibia

Caitlin McIlwain head shotCaitlin McIlwain is pursuing her MPA at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She held an internship with the Namibia Investment Promotion Development Board and contributed to the Growth Lab's project in Namibia. This two-year policy engagement with the Government of Namibia focuses on supporting implementation efforts on a range of growth- and inclusion-related challenges.... Read more about Student Stories: Exploring Investment Opportunities in Namibia

What we learn from WAEMU for regional integration on the African continent

By Julia Conrad

Created in 1994, the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) was established as a trade and currency union and encompasses the eight countries Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo1– all of which are equal members of the regional and economic union ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States....

Read more about What we learn from WAEMU for regional integration on the African continent

A Free Trade Agreement Across the African Continent: Where Are the Export Opportunities for Nigeria?

By Enzo Dominguez Prost

After being fully implemented, the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is going to be the biggest Free Trade Agreement (FTA) ever in population and geographical size: more than fifty countries have been working since 2015 on tariff reductions in goods, rules of origin and procedures, technical barriers, or trade-in services, just to mention some topics. Considering that intra-regional...

Read more about A Free Trade Agreement Across the African Continent: Where Are the Export Opportunities for Nigeria?

Using a problem-driven approach in Ethiopia

Guest blog by Abdu Nuru

This is a blog series written by the alumni of the Leading Economic Growth Executive Education Program at the Harvard Kennedy School. 65 Participants successfully completed this 10-week online course in May 2021. These are their learning journey stories.

It was my director in my department who sent the email to us briefing us about the program. It specifically addressed those who...

Read more about Using a problem-driven approach in Ethiopia
Hausmann, R., et al., 2022. The Economic Complexity of Namibia: A Roadmap for Productive Diversification .Abstract
After a large growth acceleration within the context of the commodity super cycle (2000-2015), Namibia has been grappling with three interrelated challenges: economic growth, fiscal sustainability, and inclusion. Accelerating technological progress and enhancing Namibia’s knowhow agglomeration is crucial to the process of fostering new engines of growth that will deliver progress across the three targets. Using net exports data at the four-digit level, we estimate the economic complexity of Namibia – a measure of knowhow agglomeration – vis-à-vis its peers. Our results suggest that Namibia’s economy is relatively less complex and attractive opportunities to diversify tend to be more distant. Based on economic complexity metrics, we define a place-specific path for productive diversification, identifying industries with high potential and providing inputs – related to their feasibility and attractiveness in Namibia – for further prioritization. Namibia’s path to structural transformation will likely be steeper than for most peers, calling for a more active policy stance geared towards progressive accumulation of productive capacities, well-targeted “long jumps”, and strengthening state capacity to sort out market failures associated with the process of self-discovery.

#DevTalks: A New Agenda for African Continental Integration

The Growth Lab's "Development Talks" is a series of conversations with policymakers and academics working in international development. The seminar provides a platform for practitioners and researchers to discuss both the practice of development and analytical work centered on policy.

In this conversation, Donald Kaberuka, former President of the African Development Bank (2005-2015), discusses the current state of growth in Africa, the need for debt relief, the role of multilateral organizations, specific capabilities for global competitiveness, foreign...

Read more about #DevTalks: A New Agenda for African Continental Integration
Hausmann, R., et al., 2022. A Growth Diagnostic of Namibia.Abstract

In the thirty years that have passed since independence, Namibia has been characterized by its over-reliance on its mineral resource wealth, procyclicality of macroeconomic policy, and large income disparities. After an initial decade marked by nation building and slow growth (1990-2000), the Namibian economy embarked on a rapid growth acceleration that lasted 15 years, within the context of the global commodity super cycle. Favorable terms of trade translated into an investment and export boom in the mining sector, which was amplified to the non-tradable sector of the economy through a significant public expenditure spree from 2008 onwards. Between 2000 and 2015 income and consumption per capita expanded at an average annual rate of 3.1%, poverty rates halved, and access to essential public goods expanded rapidly. As the commodity super cycle came to an end and the fiscal space was exhausted, Namibia experienced a significant reversal. Investment and exports plummeted, bringing GDP per capita to contract by 2.1% between 2015-2019. With debt-to-GDP ratios 3.5 times higher than those in 2008, the country embarked on a fiscal consolidation effort which brought the primary fiscal deficit from 6.8% of GDP in 2016 to 0.6% by March 2020. Along all these years, inequality has been endemic and is reflected across demographic characteristics and employment status. At present, a large majority of Namibians are unable to access well-paying formal sector jobs, as these tend to be particularly scarce outside of the public sector. Looking forward, the road to sustained inclusive growth and broad prosperity entails expanding the formal private labor market by diversifying the Namibian economy, while at the same time removing the barriers preventing Namibians from accessing these opportunities inherited from the apartheid.

The Growth Lab at Harvard University has partnered with the Government of Namibia to develop research that results in inputs for a policy strategy aimed at promoting sustainable and inclusive growth. The Growth Diagnostic is a cornerstone of the ongoing research engagement and is meant at providing an overview of the most binding constraints to Namibia’s economic performance and outlining how these relate in a systemic way to the concurrent challenges of growth, fiscal sustainability, and inclusion. 

Inclusive growth in Namibia is currently facing a set of self-reinforcing constraints. The country is missing both the productive capabilities (words) and required skills (letters) to sustain longer periods of growth. The low degree of knowhow agglomeration that can be inferred from its current productive structure – as gathered by the Economic Complexity Index (ECI) – leaves very little opportunities of diversification that can be pursued by redeploying existing skills (low connectedness). Our analysis reveals that Namibia has been able to diversify differentially more that most of its peers given its current set of productive capabilities, but the problem is that the set of adjacent opportunities are neither complex nor plenty. As the marginal cost of acquiring new capabilities tend to be high, the government needs to take a more active role in sorting coordination and information failures associated to the process of productive diversification and self-discovery.

Relatedly, Namibia’s growth prospects are also constrained by a shortage of specialized skills. Three empirical facts derived from econometric analysis of Labor Force Survey statistics point in this direction. First, certain skill-intensive industries and occupations exhibit differentially higher wage premiums. Second, highly educated, and experienced workers face the lowest unemployment rates in the economy, by a wide margin. Third, skill-intensive industries tend to grow less than the rest of the sectors in the economy.

The demand for high skilled foreign workers is high – as proxied by their wage premium. This skill shortage may be constraining not only existing industries but also the development of new engines of growth, limiting access to opportunity for Namibians across all skill levels. Missing skills at the top of the spectrum tends to depress job creation at the bottom. These two constraints – low knowhow agglomeration with poor connectedness and skills shortages – seem to reinforce each other. Using the Scrabble metaphor, Namibia is missing the letters (productive capabilities) and the entire words (more complex products).

Knowhow, by definition, resides in brains of people and it’s embedded in the goods and services a country produces. A broad knowhow-enhancing strategy aimed at targeting efficiency-seeking foreign direct investment (FDI, firms bringing entire new words to Namibia), and migration regulation policies (specific letters needed by more complex industries) is required to ease the binding constraints. Investment promotion efforts shall be targeted to ‘efficiency-seeking’ firms, which tend to take advantage of a competitive factor in the country (efficient labor force, access to international financial markets, infrastructure, etc.) to produce and export to foreign markets. This type of FDI is essentially different from the ‘natural resource-seeking’ investments that have characterized the Namibian economy and pose additional challenges. At the same time, the country would benefit from a more open immigration policy targeted towards high-skill workers. The evidence we have gathered suggests that high-skill foreigners tend to function as complements – rather than substitutes – to Namibian workers: industries with larger shares of high-skill workers tended to pay lower skill workers significantly higher wages. Easing the existing restrictions t labor flows and incentivizing inflows of high-skill foreigners will likely trickle down into the rest of the labor force and enhance the knowhow agglomeration of the Namibian productive ecosystem.

A challenge to productive diversification broadly, and attracting foreign investment and talent more particularly, might be policy uncertainty. Existing levels of policy uncertainty – instability or absence of the adequate regulating environment, worries about potential issues for property rights, inexperience with respect to the efficiency of domestic courts – in Namibia might not be enough to deter investments in resource-based industries, but might be an important hurdle for other type of industries, especially the ones that have a choice regarding their international location. To attract these investments, a simpler and more transparent investment environment, coped a more comprehensive set of international investment treaties, might be necessary.

The report is organized in six sections, including this Executive Summary. Section 2 outlines the Growth Diagnostic methodology. Section 3 provides a summary of the growth trajectory of Namibia and the challenges facing inclusive growth. Section 4 covers the main takeaways of the analysis conducted in each of the branches of the Growth Diagnostics Tree, including those related to access to finance, low social returns, government failures and agglomeration of collective knowhow. Section 5 concludes by highlighting potential binding and providing inputs for a collaborative exploration of why these issues have persisted and become an equilibrium.

Pages